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    Budget breakdown

    The overnight pre-briefing promised a ‘big’ budget. George Osborne’s announcements today certainly lived up to the billing.

    In the first Budget under a purely Conservative administration for 19 years, George Osborne sought to claim the mantle of the “workers’ party” from Labour: a budget for working people, creating a lower tax, lower welfare UK.

    The Chancellor did indeed cut some taxes – but froze public sector pay. He slashed billions from welfare – but introduced a new Living Wage.

    In the March Budget, the Office of Budget Responsibility (OBR) described planned spending cuts as a “rollercoaster ride”: sharp cuts for two years, with a spending splurge prior to the 2020 election. Today, the OBR said spending had been “loosened considerably”, to the tune of £83.3bn over the current parliament than thought earlier this year – as well as tax cuts costing £24.6bn.

    So how has he financed these giveaways? The OBR points to five sources:

    • Tax increases of £47.2bn, including earlier Corporation Tax payments for companies with over £20m in profits; big increases in dividend taxation and insurance premium tax; and cuts in pension tax relief
    • Welfare cuts, raising £34.9bn – the most lucrative of which are a four-year freeze in most working-age benefits and reductions in income thresholds in tax credits and work allowances in UC
    • Other spending decisions which together raise £8.1bn and include a cut in funding for the BBC which reaches £745m in 2020-21
    • £14.2bn of indirect effects from the above decisions, including higher tax and NICs receipts
    • £3.5bn of extra borrowing over the Parliament, on top of the £14.6 billion increase implied by the OBR’s pre-measures forecast

    In smoothing out the path to putting the government’s books back in the black, Mr Osborne announced a new fiscal charter: debt falling as a share of GDP every year, and surplus delayed by a year to 2019/20.

    He also confirmed governments will be compelled to run a surplus in “normal times”, defined as years with real GDP growth of over 1% a year. MPs will vote on the measure in the autumn: a potential political trap for the new Labour leader.


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    • Corporation Tax cut to 19% in 2017 and 18% in 2020
    • Corporation Tax payment dates brought forward in 2017 for companies with profits in excess of £20m
    • Bank levy to be reduced over next six years, with a new 8% surcharge on bank profits from next year
    • Apprenticeship Levy on all “large firms”
    • A further £7.2bn to be raised from a clampdown on tax avoidance and tax evasion with HMRC’s budget increased by £750m
    • New cap on charges imposed by claims management companies
    • Increase in insurance premium tax to 9.5% from November
    • Climate Change Levy exemption for renewable electricity to be removed



    Personal taxation and pay

    • New National Living Wage from next year which will reach £9/hour by 2020 for over 25yr olds
    • Personal tax allowance threshold increased to £11,000 next year
    • 40p higher rate tax threshold raised to £43,000 next year
    • From 2017, new Inheritance Tax allowance phased in, allowing couples to pass on estates worth up to £1m free of tax. It will taper away for estates worth more than £2m.
    • Permanent non-dom status abolished from April 2017



    • Working-age benefits to be frozen for four years
    • Tax credit and Universal Credit restricted to two children
    • Income threshold for tax credits for to be reduced from £6,420 to £3,850
    • 18-24 year olds no longer entitled to claim housing benefit, with a new “earn to learn” obligation
    • The annual household benefit cap will be reduced from £26,000 to £23,000 in London and to £20,000 in the rest of Britain



    Alcohol, tobacco, gambling and fuel

    • No rise in fuel duty this year with rates remaining frozen
    • No mention of alcohol and tobacco duties in the Budget
    • Major reform of vehicle excise duty (VED) to pay for new road-building and maintenance across England


    Health and education

    • Confirmation of Government funding for the NHS’ Stevens plan with a further £8bn by 2020
    • Student maintenance grants replaced with loans, repayable once graduates earn more than £21,000



    • A commitment to meet the NATO target of spending 2% of GDP on defence every year
    • Defence spending to rise in real terms (0.5% above inflation) in every year of the Parliament
    • A new £1.5bn Joint Security Fund for investment in military and intelligence agencies


    Infrastructure and devolution

    • Further English devolution: fire services, land commission, children services, employment programmes devolved to Greater Manchester, and working towards deals with Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, and West Yorkshire
    • Transport for North made a statutory body and given £30m funding including roll-out of oyster-style ticketing system across the north
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